Maluso Aukadaulo a Marmaray

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
• Pali kutalika konse kwa 13.500 m, komwe kuli 27000 m, iliyonse yomwe ili ndi mizere iwiri.
• Vesi la Throat limapangidwa ndi ngalande yomiza ndi kutalika kwa msewu wa 1 kutalika kwa 1386.999 m, Line 2 Emersion tunnel ndi 1385.673 m.
• Kupitiliza kwa mulingo womizidwa ku Asia ndi Europe umaperekedwa ndi ngalande zokumba .. Kutalika kwa msewu wa kukumba kwa 1 ndi 10837 m, ndipo mzere wa 2 wokumba ngalande kutalika ndi 10816 m.
Msewu ndi msewu wopanda mabala mkati mwa ngalande ndipo ndi msewu wakale kwambiri kunja kwa msewu.
• Njanji zomwe zidagwiritsidwa ntchito zinali UIC 60 ndi njanji zowuma za bowa.
• Zipangizo zolumikizira ndi mtundu wa HM, womwe ndi mtundu wa zotanuka.
• Njanji zazitali za 18 m zimapangidwa kukhala njanji zazitali zazitali.
• Malo otchingira LVT adagwiritsidwa ntchito mumsewu.
• Kukonzanso misewu ku Marmaray kumachitika ndi makina aposachedwa kwambiri mwa kuchita kwathu popanda kusokonezedwa malinga ndi buku la TCDD Road kukonza nyumba komanso kayendetsedwe ka makampani opanga omwe adakonzedwa motsatira ndondomeko za EN ndi UIC.
• Kuyang'anira mzere wowoneka bwino tsiku lililonse kumachitika tsiku lililonse, ndipo kuyendera mawayilesi kumachitika mwezi uliwonse ndi makina oonera kwambiri.
• Kuwongolera ndi kukonza masanjidwewo kumachitika motsatira miyeso imodzimodzi.
• Ntchito zogwirizira kukonza zimachitika ndi 1 Manager, 1 Maintenance and kukonza Supervisor, 4 Injiniya, 3 kafukufuku ndi antchito a 12 mu Road Maintenance and kukonza Directorate ya Marmaray.

ziwerengero

ZONSE ZOFUNA ZONSE 76,3 Km
Zomwe Zikadakhala Zambiri za Metro 63 Km
- Chiwerengero cha malo pa Surface Zida za 37
Utali Wonse wa Chigawo Chachilala cha Railway Strait Tube 13,6km
- Kutalika kwa Pakani 9,8 Km
- Omizidwa Tube Tube Tunnel 1,4km
- Tsegulani - Kutalika kwa Ngalande Yotalika 2,4 Km
- Chiwerengero cha Pansi pa Malo Zidutswa za 3
Kutalika kwautali 225m (ochepera)
Chiwerengero cha Apaulendo Omwe Amawongolera Amodzi 75.000 oyendetsa / ola / njira imodzi
Kutsekula Kwambiri 18
Kuthamanga Kwambiri 100 km / h
Kuthamanga kwazamalonda 45 km / h
Chiwerengero cha Ndandanda za Maphunziro Mphindi 2-10
Chiwerengero cha Magalimoto 440 (2015 chaka)

KUTENGA TUNNEL

Mphepo Yokwiririka imakhala ndi zinthu zingapo zopangidwa mu doko lowuma kapena m'bwalomo. Zinthuzi zimakokedwa kutsambalo, zimamizidwa mumsewu ndikualumikizidwa kuti zikhale gawo lomaliza la ngalandeyo.

Pachithunzichi pansipa, chinthucho chimakhala chonyamulidwa ndi catamaran docking barge to a undermerated area. (Tama River Tunnel ku Japan)

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Chithunzi chomwe chili pamwambapa chikuwonetsa ma envulopu omwe amachokera kunja. Mitengoyi imatengedwa ngati sitimayo n'kupita ku malo komwe konkire idzadzazidwa ndi kumaliza (kutchulidwa pamwambapa) [South Osaka Port ku Japan (pamsewu wa sitima ndi msewu) (Mtsinje wa Kobe Port Minatojima ku Japan).

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

pamwamba; Sitima Yamtundu wa Kawasaki ku Japan. chabwino; Mtsinje wa Osaka ku South Japan. Zonse zomaliza za zinthuzo zimatsekedwa kwa kanthawi ndi magawano; Choncho, pamene madzi amamasulidwa ndipo dziwe lomwe limagwiritsidwa ntchito pomanga zinthu zimadzaza ndi madzi, zinthu izi zidzaloledwa kuti ziyandama m'madzi. (Zithunzi zochokera m'buku lomwe linafalitsidwa ndi Association of Japanese Screening and Reclamation Engineers.)

Kutalika kwa ngalande yomilizidwa pamphepete mwa Bosporamu ndi pafupifupi ma kilomita 1.4, kuphatikiza kulumikizana pakati pa msewu womizidwa ndi makatani oyendetsa. Tawoli ndi cholumikizira chofunikira mu njanji ziwiri-ziwiri zomwe zimadutsa pansi pa Bosphorus; msewuwu uli pakati pa chigawo cha Eminönü ku Yuropa ku Istanbul ndi chigawo cha Üsküdar ku mbali ya Asia. Zingwe zonse ziwiri zimafalikira mkati mwa mbali yomweyo ya batire ndipo zimasiyanitsidwa wina ndi mzake ndi khoma lolekanitsa pakati.

M'zaka za zana la makumi awiri, makonzedwe oposa zana amadzimangidwira pamsewu kapena sitima zapamtunda padziko lonse lapansi. Ma tunnel omwe amalowetsedwa amamangidwa monga mafunde oyandikana ndiyeno amamizidwa mumsewu womwe unali utasweka kale ndipo uli ndi chivundikiro chophimba. Mankhwalawa ayenera kukhala ndi kulemera kokwanira kuti asatenge kusambira pambuyo poika malo.

Ma tunnel omwe amadziwika amachokera ku zinthu zina zomwe zimapangidwira zokhazokha; Zonsezi zimakhala 100 m kutalika, ndipo kumapeto kwa njira ya chubu izi zimagwirizanitsidwa ndikuphatikizidwa pansi pamadzi kuti apange njira yomaliza. Gawo lirilonse liri ndi ziphuphu zimayikidwa panthawi yamapeto pamagulu; maselowa amalola kuti zinthu ziziyandama pamene mkati mwauma. Ndondomekoyi imatsirizika kumalo otentha, kapena zinthu zimayambira m'nyanja monga sitimayo ndipo kenako zimatulutsa mbali zowonongeka pafupi ndi malo omaliza.

Tinthu tomwe timamizidwa mumadzi ndikumalowetsa doko lowuma kapena padoko kenaka ndimakokedwa nawo pamalowo; kumizidwa mu msewu ndi kulumikizidwa kuti apange gawo lomaliza la ngalande. Kumanzere: Zinthuzo zimakokedwa kumalo komwe msonkhano womaliza udzachitikira kumalo okhala doko lambiri.

Zinthu za ngalande zitha kukokedwa bwinobwino pamtunda wawutali. Ntchito zogwirira ntchito zitachitika ku Tuzla, zinthu izi adaziyika pazingwe zomwe zidapangidwa mwapadera, zomwe zimapangitsa kutsitsa kwa zinthuzo kuti zikhale njira yokonzedweratu pansi pa nyanja. Zinthuzi zimayikiridwa, ndikupereka zolemera zomwe zimafunikira kuti zitsike ndikuviika.

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Kulowetsa chinthu ndi ntchito yotenga nthawi komanso yovuta. Pa chithunzi pamwambapa, chinthucho chikuwonetsedwa kuti chimizidwa pansi. Ichi chimayendetsedwa molunjika ndi nangula ndi kachitidwe ka chingwe ndipo makina oyenda pazingwe zolowe amayendetsa malo okhazikika mpaka chinthucho chimatsitsidwa ndikukhazikika kwathunthu pamaziko. Pachithunzichi pansipa, malo omwe amayang'aniridwa amatha kuyang'aniridwa ndi GPS pakamiza. (Zithunzi zojambulidwa m'bukhu lofalitsidwa ndi Japan Association of Screening and Breeding Engineers.)

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Zinthu zomwe zimamizidwa zimapangitsidwa pamodzi-kumapeto ndi zinthu zam'mbuyomu; zitatha izi, madzi omwe amakhala pakalumikizana pakati pazinthu zolumikizidwawo adathiridwa. Zotsatira zakutulutsa madzi, kuthamanga kwa madzi kumapeto kwake kumapangitsa kuti gasketyo ikhale yopanda madzi. Zinthu zakanthawi zothandizidwa zidamangidwa pomwe maziko pansi pa zinthuzo adamalizidwa. Kenako njirayo idadzazidwanso ndi njira yotetezera yomwe idafunidwa. Pambuyo poyikapo gawo la kumapeto kwa chubu, magawo olumikizana mu msewu wokokako ndi chubu cha chubucho adadzazidwa ndi zinthu zodzaza zomwe zimapatsa madzi. Ma Machine a Tunneling (TBMs) anali kuwagwiritsa ntchito kuti abowolere mu ngalandezi mpaka maukondewo atafika.

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Pamwamba pa ngalandeyo amaphimbidwa ndi zobwezerezedwenso kuti zitsimikizike kukhazikika ndi chitetezo. Mafanizo onse atatuwa akuwonetsa kubwezera kuchokera kugulu lomwe limadziyendetsa lokha kuwirikiza kawiri pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya tremi. (Zithunzi zochokera ku buku lofalitsidwa ndi Japan Association of Screening and Breeding Engineers)

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Mu ngalande yomiliramo pansi pa nyanjayo, pali chipinda chimodzi chokhala ndi zipinda ziwiri, chilichonse chopitira sitima imodzi. Zinthuzi zimaphatikizidwa kwathunthu mkati mwa seabed kotero kuti ntchito ikatha kugwira ntchito yolumikizidwa imafanana ndi mbiri ya seabed ntchitoyo isanayambe.

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati

Chimodzi mwazabwino za njira yophatikizira chubu njira ndikuti gawo loyambalo la mugetsi limatha kukhala lolingana ndi zosowa zenizeni za gawo lililonse. Mwanjira iyi, mutha kuwona zigawo zingapo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuzungulira padziko lapansi pa chithunzi pamwambapa. Zingwe zophatikizira zidapangidwa mwanjira ya konkriti yolimbitsa yomwe, mwa njira, imakhala ndi ma envelopu achitsulo kapena opanda ntchito ndipo imagwira ntchito limodzi ndi zinthu zolimbitsa konkire. Mosiyana ndi izi, njira zatsopano zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito ku Japan kuyambira makumi asanu ndi anai, pogwiritsira ntchito zisanalimbikitsidwe koma zolimba nthito zomwe zakonzedwa ndi masangweji pakati pa maenvelopu amkati ndi akunja atsulo; ma concretes amenewa amapangidwa mwadongosolo. Njira imeneyi ikhoza kukhazikitsidwa ndikukula kwamadzi abwino kwambiri komanso konkire. Njirayi imatha kuthetsa zofunikira zokhudzana ndi kukonzanso ndikupanga zitsulo ndi nkhungu, ndipo popita nthawi, popereka chitetezo chokwanira cha ma envulopu achitsulo, mavuto amawonongeka amatha.

KUTSITSA NDIPONSO ZINA TUNNEL

Zingwe zopangidwa ndi Istanbul zimakhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana.

mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
mawonekedwe apabanja aukwati
Gawo lofiira la njirayo limakhala ndi ngalande yolowera, pomwe gawo loyera limapangidwa kwambiri ngati phula lopopera pogwiritsa ntchito makina a tunneling (TBM), ndipo mbali zachikaso zimapangidwa pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya Open-Close njira (C&C) ndi njira ya New Austrian Tunneling Njira (NATM) kapena njira zina zikhalidwe. . Chiwonetserochi chikuwonetsa Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) yokhala ndi manambala a 1,2,3,4 ndi 5.
Ngalande zokumba zomwe zidatsegulidwa pathanthwe pogwiritsa ntchito makina opangira maukondo (TBMs) adalumikizidwa ndi ngalande yomizidwa. Pamakhala ngalande mbali iliyonse komanso msewu wa njanji mumayendedwe aliwonsewo. Tizilomboti tinapangidwa ndi mtunda wokwanira pakati pa wina ndi mnzake kuti tilepheretse kukhudzana kwambiri. Kuti apereke mwayi wothawira mumsewu wofananawo mwadzidzidzi, makatani olumikizana kwakanthawi amapangidwa pafupipafupi.
Zingwe zomwe zili pansi pa mzindawo zimalumikizana wina ndi mnzake mita ya 200; motero, zimaperekedwa kuti ogwira ntchito zothandizira amatha kudutsa kuchokera ku njira imodzi kupita ku ina. Kuphatikiza apo, pakachitika ngozi mu ngalande iliyonse yobowola, maulalo awa amapereka njira zopulumutsira komanso kupatsa mwayi opulumutsa.
Mu makina opangira matayala (TBM), chitukuko chimodzimodzi chikupezeka m'chaka cha 20-30 chomaliza. Mafanizowa amasonyeza zitsanzo za makina amakono. Mzere wa chishango ukhoza kupitirira mamita 15 ndi njira zamakono.
Kugwira ntchito kwa makina amakono otopetsa kumatha kukhala kovuta. Chithunzichi chimagwiritsa ntchito makina okhala ndi mbali zitatu, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Japan, kuti atsegule kotchinga mawonekedwe. Njira iyi ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito momwe mapulatifomu akuyenera kumangidwa, koma osafunikira.
Komwe gawo la ngalandeyo lasintha, njira zingapo zapadera zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito, komanso njira zina (New Austrian Tunneling Way (NATM), kuphulitsa ndi kupukusa makina ogwiritsira ntchito gallery. Njira zofananazi zidagwiritsidwa ntchito pakufukula kwa Sirkeci Station, yomwe idapangidwa mu nyumba yayikulu kwambiri ndikutsegulira mobisa. Masiteshoni awiri osiyana adamangidwa mobisa pogwiritsa ntchito maluso otseguka; Malo awa amapezeka ku Yenikapı ndi Üsküdar. Pomwe makatani otseguka amagwiritsidwa ntchito, zopangira izi zimapangidwa ngati gawo limodzi la bokosi pogwiritsa ntchito khoma logawaniza pakati pakati pa mizere iwiri.
M'njira zonse ndi m'malo opumira, kupatula kwa madzi ndi mpweya wabwino kumayikidwa kuteteza kutulutsa. Kwa masitima apansi panthaka, malingaliro opanga ofanana ndi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito poyambira masiteshoni apamtunda adzagwiritsidwa ntchito. Zithunzi zotsatirazi zikuwonetsa tunjini yopangidwa ndi njira ya NATM.
Pomwe mizere yolumikizana yolumikizidwa ndi mizere kapena mizere yolumikizana imafunikira, njira zosiyanasiyana zosanja zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pophatikiza. Munjira iyi, njira ya TBM ndi njira ya NATM zimagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi.

KUKHALA NDI KUSINTHA

Zombo zokumba zokhala ndi zidebe za grab zinagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zina mwa pansi pa pansi pa madzi ndi ntchito zokulira pansi pa ngalandeyo.
Emersed Tube Tunnel idayikidwa munyanja ya Bosphorous. Chifukwa chake, padatsegulidwa njira pansanja yayikulu kwambiri yokwanira zida zomangira; Kupitilira apo, msewuwu umapangidwa mwanjira yoti chivundikiro chomata ndi choteteza chitha kuikidwa pa Msewu.
Kufukula pansi pamadzi ndi ntchito zotsitsa za ngalandeyi kumachitika pansi ndikugwiritsa ntchito zokumba zazikulu komanso pansi pamadzi. Kuchuluka kwa dothi lofewa, mchenga, miyala komanso miyala yomwe yachotsedwako yatha kuchuluka kwa 1,000,000 m3.
Malo ozama kwambiri a njira yonse ili pa Bosphorous ndipo akuya pafupifupi ma 44 mita. Imersion Tube Chotetezera chosachepera pafupifupi mamitala a 2 chimayikidwa pamwamba pa ngalandeyo ndipo gawo lamtanda la machubu limakhala pafupifupi 9 mita. Chifukwa chake, kuya kwa kugwira ntchito kwa dredger kunali pafupifupi 58 mita.
Panali zida zochepa zamitundu mitundu zomwe zimalola kuti izi zitheke. Dredging Dredger ndi Tug Bucket Dredger adagwiritsidwa ntchito pakuwunika ntchito.
Nkhumba Bucket Dredger ndi galimoto yaikulu kwambiri yomwe imayikidwa pamtunda. Monga momwe galimoto iyi ikusonyezera, ili ndi zidebe ziwiri kapena zingapo. Nkhokwe izi ndizitsulo zomwe zimatseguka pamene chipangizocho chimasulidwa kuchoka pamphepete ndipo chimayimitsidwa kuchoka pamphepete ndi kuimitsidwa. Chifukwa zidebe zimakhala zolemetsa kwambiri, zimamira pansi. Chidebecho chikakwera pamwamba pa nyanja, chimatseka mosavuta, kuti zipangizozi zikutumizedwe pamwamba ndi kutulutsidwa pazitsulo pogwiritsa ntchito ndowa.
Ogwedeza nsomba zamakono kwambiri amatha kufufuza pafupifupi 25 m3 mu ntchito imodzi yokha. Kugwiritsira ntchito zida zowonjezera kumathandiza kwambiri pazomwe zimakhala zovuta zowonjezera ndipo sungagwiritsidwe ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito zida zolimba monga sandstone ndi thanthwe. Zitsulo zazing'anjo za chidebe ndi chimodzi mwa mitundu yakale kwambiri ya dredger; Komabe, adagwiritsidwabe ntchito kwambiri padziko lapansi kuti afufuze m'madzi.
Ngati dothi lovundiralo lingasungidwe, magesi ena apadera amatha kupanga zidebe. Zisindikizo izi zimalepheretsa kutulutsa zatsalira ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono mu khola lamadzi pakukoka ndowa kuchokera pansi pa nyanja kapena kuwonetsetsa kuti kuchuluka kwa tinthu timene tamasulidwa kungasungidwe pamlingo wochepa kwambiri.
Ubwino wa chidebe ndikuti ndiwodalirika kwambiri ndipo umatha kukumba ndi kukuta pansi pakuya kwambiri. Zoyipa zake ndikuti kuchuluka kwa kufufuma kumatsika kwambiri pamene kuya kukukwera, ndikuti zomwe zilipo mu Bosphorous zitha kuwonetsa kulondola ndikuchita kwathunthu. Kuphatikiza apo, zokumbira ndi kuyang'ana sizingachitike pazida zolimba ndi makwerero.
Dredger Bucket Dredger ndi chotengera chapadera chokhala ndi mtundu wa kumiza chodulira ndi chodulira chopopera ndi chitoliro chosenda. Sitimayi ikamayenda mumsewuwu, nthaka yosakanikirana ndi madzi imapumizidwa kuchokera pansi penipeni pa nyanjayo. Ndikofunikira kuti madambo azikhazikika mchombo. Kuti mudzaze chombocho mochuluka kwambiri, akuyenera kuonetsetsa kuti madzi ambiri otsalira atha kutuluka m'chingalawacho pomwe chombo chikuyenda. Sitimayo ikadzaza, imapita kumalo okula zinyalala ndikuchotsa zinyalala; pambuyo pake chombo chimakonzekera gawo lina lotsatira.
Mphamvu ya Tow Bucket Dredgers imatha kugwira pafupifupi tani 40,000 (pafupifupi 17,000 m3) ya zipangizo mu ntchito imodzi yokha ndipo imatha kukumba ndikuyang'ana mozama za mamita 70. Dredger Bucket Dredgers amatha kufufuza ndi kusinkhasinkha mosavuta kwa sing'anga zovuta zowonjezera.
Ubwino wa Dredger Bucket Dredger; mphamvu yamakono ndi mafoni sakudalira machitidwe a anchorage. Zoipa; ndi kusowa kwa kulondola ndi kufukula ndi kugwedeza ndi ziwiya izi m'madera pafupi ndi gombe.
M'malo olumikizirana matanthidwe a ngalande yomilidwayo, miyala ina idakokedwa ndikugulitsidwa pafupi ndi gombe. Njira ziwiri zosiyana zatsatiridwa pochita izi. Imodzi mwa njirazi ndikugwiritsa ntchito njira yoyambira kubowola pansi ndi kuphulika pansi pamadzi; Njira ina ndikugwiritsa ntchito chipangizo chopewera chapadera, chomwe chimalola kuti thanthweli ligwe popanda kuphulika. Njira zonsezi ndi zosakwiya komanso zokwera mtengo.

Kalendala Yamakono Ya Njanji

Pts 11

Chidziwitso chachikondi: Private Security Service

Novembala 11 @ 15: 00 - 16: 00
okonza: womanga
+ 90 222 224 00 00
chi- lengedwe 12
About Levent Elmastaş
RayHaber mkonzi

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Comments